Sensitivity of Arctic coastal environments to oil spill impacts
|Lead Author||Dilyara, Zagretdinova|
|Institution Contact||Lomonosov Moscow State University Marine Research Center. St. LENINSKIE GORY, 1/77, room 104, Moscow, 199234, RUSSIAN FEDERATION|
|Co-Authors||Shabalin Nikolay, Lomonosov Moscow State University Marine Research Center, Russia|
|Theme||Theme 1: Vulnerability of Arctic Environments|
|Session Name||1.5 Assessment of Environmental Impact of Industrial Activities in the Arctic|
|Datetime||Wed, Sep 14, 2016 11:30 AM - 11:45 AM|
|Abstract text||In the face of increasing economic opportunities in Russia’s Arctic regions, the need to improve state of preparedness for oil spill related emergencies, in particular, is critical. This report presents an overview of resources that are vulnerable to oil spills. It includes baseline coastal information such as shoreline form, substrate, and vegetation type, which is required for operational prioritization and coordination of on-site spill response activities, as well as sensitive biological resources and sensitive human use resources. The study area includes the coastal area that extends along the mainland from the Kandalacsha Bay to the Onega Bay of the White Sea.
Shoreline mapping in White Sea has focused on the generation of a pre-spill database as part of the oil spill response planning for that area. The mapping is based on Environmental Sensitivity Index (NOAA, 1976). In the first step, the coast is divided into alongshore segments, within which the physical shore-zone character is relatively homogeneous. From this initial detailed mapping, a pre-spill database is created using the ESRI software. The purpose of this data set is to provide a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. This data set is entered into the geographic information system (GIS), and the interpretation presented in this data set provides a simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment.
To date, over 300 km of shoreline in the White Sea has been mapped.
Analysis of the geomorphological structure of the coasts of the Onega and Kandalaksha bays has allowed to classify the coastal zone by ESI to potential oil spill and find out what the shore of the Kandalaksha Bay is much less vulnerable to oil spills (share of coastline, with index 1 – 28%), compared with Onega (share 8%).
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