Changes of Arctic soils mycobiota under influence of anthropogenic factors

Lead Author Irina, Kirtsideli
Institution Contact Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 197376, St. Petersburg, Russia
Co-Authors Vlasov D.Yu., Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia Zelenskaya M.S.Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia Krylenkov V.A. Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia Abakumov E.V.,Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia Teshebaev Sh.B. Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia Sokolov V.T.Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia Barantsevich E.P. Northwestern Almazov Federal medical research center of the Russian Federation Ministry of Health, St. Petersburg, Russia
Theme Theme 1: Vulnerability of Arctic Environments
Session Name 1.6 Strategies for ecosystem services and sustainable environmental management of soils and contaminated areas in the Arctic
Datetime Wed, Sep 14, 2016 02:00 PM - 02:15 PM
Presentation Type Oral
Abstract text Arctic and Antarctic soils can be considered as one of the most extreme environment.
Mycobiota (microfungi species) of natural Arctic soils (in polar desert and arctic tundra) is characterized by relatively little list of species, оligodomination for soil microfungal complexes, a wide range of their ecological responses and the psychrophily of the most constituent species and can be considered as peculiarities of polar desert and arctic tundra mycobiota
The main pathways of microfungi in the Arctic are 1) air environment, 2) the water of the northern seas and oceans, 3) anthropogenic influence.
The species composition of microfungi changes in soils near Arctic settlements. The species from natural uncontaminated soils and invasive species not previously mentioned in natural soils are present there. Anthropogenic influence on the soils microfungi complexes can be expressed as 1) the introduction of new species into the soil through air or water environment, 2) the introduction of new materials or substrates contaminated (polluted) by microfungi, 3) the introduction of materials or substrates, which can change the structure and processes in soils and provide an advantage in the development of a cosmopolitan species
Significant similarity of micrfungi in contaminated soils and anthropogenic substrates was observed. In the polluted soil 76 species of microscopic fungi were noted, 41 species (53.9%) of them were identified at anthropogenic substrates and materials.
At the same time anthropogenic contaminated soils lose their resemblance to natural soils. Wide temperature range mesophilic species enables the development and adaptation to low temperatures. These include the species from genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Exophiala, Geomyces, Humicola, Penicillium, Mucor, Phoma, Rhodotorula, Trichoderma and Ulocladium. Adaptation to Arctic natural conditions take place both at the level of a system, that is at the level of microfungi complexes, and at the level of species and isolates.
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