Structure of Arctic local floras and the problem of invasive species
|Lead Author||Oksana, Sidorova|
|Institution Contact||Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Severnaya Dvina Emb., 17, Arkhangelsk, Russia$ 163002|
|Co-Authors||Elena Churakova Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Archangelsk, Russia|
|Theme||Theme 1: Vulnerability of Arctic Environments|
|Session Name||1.7 Invasive species in Arctic ecosystems in the changing world: Is it a real threat?|
|Abstract text||Arctic Floating University is one of the largest scientific and educational projects of the NArFU. Important direction of research of this project is to study the local flora in the Arctic territory. Area of investigation is very extensive and includes primarily the Arctic island territories.
In 2013-2015 six local floras were studied in the East European Arctic: three of them were situated in the northern tundra (Bugrino, White Nose, Varnek), and two in the arctic tundra (Bolvansky Nose, Matveev), and one in the polar desert (Cape Sedov). Territory of local floras Bugrino, Varnek include Nenets settlement. On the other territories meteorological stations are located, which have been operating for many years. Therefore, all these areas are transformed to some extent. Even so, any adventitious synanthropic species are not recorded in these local floras, although the share of apophytes (species are located in naturally eroded and poorly sodded areas) is high significantly. It ranges from 37 to 55 percent of the total number of species of flora. According to reports this parameter is lower and varies between 30 to 40 percent for more southern continental tundra coastal floras. Proximity of the sea coast, widespread cryogenic erosion, the presence of large colonies of birds and mammals explain high share of apophytes in the floras of high-latitude Arctic. The main difficulties for penetration of invasive synanthropic species on Arctic territory, therefore, are not only a deficit of diasporas of these species and extreme climatic conditions, but also a considerable number of species of native flora are well adapted to the development of disturbed areas. As a result, only native eroziophytes and nitrophytes identified in the human habitation and other buildings, trails, roads. In the same time, the species composition of plant communities and microgroups of transformed habitats differs from those native.