We have come to live here
|Lead Author||Galina, Aksyanova|
|Institution Contact||Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Pr. 32a, Moscow, 119991, Russia|
|Theme||Theme 4: Building Long-term Human Capacity|
|Session Name||4.4 Circumpolar Health and Well-Being|
|Abstract text||The author represents field materials of 2013-2014 on physical anthropology of two groups of the Russian Old Settlers in Siberian Arctic: indigirshchiky, or "russkoustyintsy", and the kolymchane, or "pokhodchane" – the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The resident European population is beginning to form since the end of the 17th century here and now has presented by several hundred their descendants in each area. The different family structure of two territorial samples says that now it is different populations of historically related population. The vast majority of the examined persons have the Russian ethnic identity. All population knows Russian freely. Metisation level in both groups rather high, but the European gene pool, Old Settlers’ including, nevertheless prevails.
Kolymchane have higher extent of mixture with all local Asian people, Mongoloid on racial type – Yakuts, Chukchi, Yukaghirs and Evens. Inclusion in Old Settlers group of a substratum component has canalized on ancestors of a female (mother, the grandmother, the great-grandmother from any parental line).
Physical appearance and tooth morphology are well coordinated with historical and genealogical data on formation of special groups of ethnic Russians. The inflow of the European population, which was not stopping within centuries, maintained a phenotypic variety of marriage partners in Asian polar region.
Mongoloid component more pronounced in the Kolyma group, however two modern populations represent the general anthropological complex endemic owing to Caucasian and Mongoloid mixture. We find its analogs in the basin of Pechora, in groups of the Komi – the Nenets border zone in the extreme northeast of Europe. Material illustrates the high level of biological and social adaptation of human populations to conditions of the Arctic. In addition see: Aksyanova G.A. Russkoye Ustye: anthropological study // Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 2015. 43. No 3. P. 142–155.