Traditional food problems of Nenets people in Western Siberia

Lead Author Andrei, Lobanov
Institution Contact "Scientific Center of Arctic Research" Nadym, Russia, "Food and Biotechnology", Moscow, Russia
Co-Authors Lobanov A.A., Andronov S.V., Kostritsyn V.V., Kobelkova I.V., Keshabyants E.E., Lobanova L.P., Popov A.I., Kochkin R.A.
Theme Theme 4: Building Long-term Human Capacity
Session Name 4.5 Work and workers in the Arctic
Datetime Thu, Sep 15, 2016 02:15 PM - 02:30 PM
Presentation Type Oral
Abstract text The Nenets of Western Siberia have preserved the nomadic reindeer herding and traditional fishing. Meat, liver and reindeer blood, meat of fish of the whitefish family are diet basis of more than 22 thousand people. Unfortunately, the global economic, climatic and social changes greatly affect the consumption of traditional food by the inhabitants of the Arctic, which may increase the incidence of civilization diseases: heart and blood vessels diseases, overweight and diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: this study involved inhabitants of Nenets villages and tundra, located in the north of Western Siberia, Gydan, Yamal, Tazovsky peninsulas. 401 people, men 23.2%, women 76.8% participated in the study. The average age was 47.6±14.9 years. The frequency method of nutrition study was used. Measurement of blood pressure was taken three times by the method of Korotkov, the presence of hypertension was determined in accordance with the RSSC (Russian Scientific Society of Cardiologists) recommendations (2010) on arterial hypertension. The index of functional oxygen consumption in the tissue was determined using capillary blood flow laser analyzer – apparatus "LAKK-M" ("LAZMA", Russia). Bioimpedance analysis was performed on the KM-AR-01 complex unit in the configuration of the "Diamond-AIST" (v. 10.2). High density lipoprotein cholesterol ("Piccolo Express" ("Abaxis", USA)) was determined in the blood serum. Dynamics of deer meat and local fish consumption were examined in the period 2012-2014. To build hypertension development risk models was used non-linear logit regression with step-by-step inclusion of variables by the method of maximum likelihood.
Results and discussion: it was revealed that from 2012 to 2014 the local fish consumption by the population in indigenous villages decreased by 36.9%, and venison consumption by 48.2%. This dramatic decline in consumption of traditional foods cannot be explained by the industrial development of the territory only. An important factor in this process is the increasing role of commodity-money relations replacing subsistence economy. Climate change, frequent abnormal thaw and other weather phenomena, causing reindeers deaths of and the timing change of fishing should be taken into account as well. Fish and reindeer meat consumption reduction significantly increases the risk of hypertension and prevalence of overweight. To the greatest extent the risk of hypertension development can be decreased by the consumption of pike (11.4). Consumption of the whitefish family deters hypertension slightly less than the pike: broad whitefish - 2.0; vendace - 1.9; whitefish - 1.4. Along with local fish, hypertension development risk can be decreased by the consumption of onions - 1.9, cloudberries - 1.1; buckwheat - 1.1; brown bread - 1.1. The most favorable combination of food types are: venison + berries (OR 1, 39) and broad whitefish + pike (OR 1, 67). Hypertension development risk is reduced most probably due to ability of traditional food (freshwater fish and venison) to normalize endothelial function of the vascular wall, to influence on blood lipids composition in favor of non- atherogenic fraction, to improve efficiency of tissue respiration. Thus, the analysis of body composition revealed that individuals consuming venison not less than 3 times a week differ significantly (-20.0%) in body mass index (U-2577.0; p=0.04), have significantly more (+20.0%) lean body mass (U-2279.0; p<0.01), significantly less total fluid (-10.0%) (U-2352.0; p<0.01) and intracellular fluid (to 15.0%) (U-2252.0; p=0.03). Positive correlation between daily venison intake and concentration of high-density lipoproteins in the blood (rs=0.5; p=0.003), as well as between pike consumption and functional index of oxygen consumption in tissue (rs=0.6; p<0.001) were revealed.
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