The features of natural and artificial recovery in quarries of the forest-tundra zone of Western Siberia
|Lead Author||Elena, Koptseva|
|Institution Contact||Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia|
|Co-Authors||Alexander Egorov, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia|
|Theme||Theme 1: Vulnerability of Arctic Environments|
|Session Name||1.5 Assessment of Environmental Impact of Industrial Activities in the Arctic|
|Abstract text||The development of territories, construction of buildings, settlements are required mineral resources including sand. Sand mining disturbs natural vegetation.
Sand quarries were investigated in the forest-tundra zone of Western Siberia many times (2000-2013). Natural revegetation in quarries in the North is complicated due severe environmental conditions such as permafrost, low biological production, slow accumulation of organic matter and etc.
Our investigation shows that natural recovery process in quarries takes a lot of time. Only the initial stages of formation of zonal type communities with participation of cenosis-forming woody plants are observed even after 30 years from the beginning of overgrowing process in quarries. Special actions on biological re-cultivation will effectively restore and return sites to original state.
Our observations and experience of other researchers have allowed to develop following recommendations:
- adding of peat or forest fertile soil in sufficient quantity;
- to take into account the possibility of erosion even on plots with a slight slope surface;
- planting of annual and perennial grasses; using rapid growth annual grasses which create protection for perennial species to stabilize soil surface;
- to use adventive and aborigine plant species;
- to use leguminous plant species for increasing soil fertility;
- creation a sufficient tree density during planting.
Absence of regulations and methodic instructions makes the situation with effective recultivation of quarries worse. High prices and labor costs for recultivation of disturbed sites are forcing tenants to look for effective ways to badland restore only for the first year when acceptance of results by local authorities occurs.
For successful recovery in quarries it is necessary to develop the criteria for effective biological reclamation. Clear quantitative indicators of effectiveness for restoration process are also required.
This work was supported by the Department of Science and Innovation of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (grant № 01-15/4, 25.07.2012).